All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. The Colour Therapy Course may only be used for information. No person may take this manual or any part of it and use or resell it for their own individual courses. This manual belongs solely to Alison Demarco. Any attempt to do so will result in legal prosecution. Legal steps have been taken to protect this work. Alison Demarco © @Alison – February 2018.


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LEARNING OUTCOMES. The student will gain a further understanding of Light, Colour and the different forms of the electromagnetic spectrum. The awareness of how we perceive colours will help the student to the fundamental process of the different brain wave patterns. Telepathy will deepen the students knowledge and dispel any myths they may have on the subject.


Every object we see has colour. But from the scientific perspective, what is colour? How do we quantify what we see? Firstly, let us consider how an object is illuminated, as this will affect what we see. A source of illumination/light displays a “spectrum” of light from infrared to violet; and in some cases, small amounts of ultra violet (UV). Different light sources give off varying quantities of light in different bands of the spectrum: for example, the light from a candle looks yellow whereas some fluorescent lights can look blue.

Now let us consider our coloured surface. What happens when light strikes a surface? When light strikes a surface some of the light is absorbed and some is reflected. What we see is, of course, the remaining or reflected light. So, if we see a bright red surface then the surface is absorbing orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Likewise, a purple surface is reflecting red and blue but absorbing the remainder. What about the physical appearance/condition of the surface? Is it matte, dull, shiny, or iridescent? Matt, dull, and shiny all cover surface properties. A shiny surface is always smooth, so light has a well-defined, unbroken surface to bounce off. Matte is the opposite as on a microscopic level the surface is rough- scattering the light. Matte surfaces are quite often powerful absorbers of light, also giving rise to this “dull” appearance. Meanwhile, iridescence is caused by the selective refraction of light. When we shine white light through a prism the light is separated into its constituent colours or spectrum. With iridescence we see different colours refracted from different parts of the surface. Thus, we can now describe surfaces as “reflectors,” “refractors,” “absorbers, ” or “scatterers.



We know that reflections do not just occur in mirrors; in fact, most objects reflect light to one extent or another. The extent to which an object reflects light allows us to classify the surface. If the surface is a poor reflector, then we would refer to it as “matte.” If on the other hand the surface is a good reflector, the surface is called “shiny.” If, however, the surface were a near total reflector, then we would consider the surface a mirror. Let us now consider what happens when light is reflected from a surface. Reflection (the Law).
The angle between the “incident” (or approaching) ray is equal to that between the reflected ray and the normal (“normal” referring to an imaginary line drawn at right angles to the point of reflection). The law of reflection holds for any reflective surface. Curved Reflectors There are two types of reflector: concave and convex. Concave reflectors curve inwards, while convex reflectors curve outwards. As you can see, concave mirrors focus light; whereas convex mirrors
scatter light. Torches/flashlights usually have a specially-shaped concave reflector which focuses the light into a tight beam, improving the performance of the torch.


The concept of the electromagnetic spectrum was developed over a century ago. And as the individual bands of the light spectrum were discovered, they were quickly put to use. A good example of this is “radio waves.” Heinrich Hertz discovered radio waves in 1888 and by 1895 Guglielmo Marconi had invented and demonstrated the first radio communications set. In fact, so enterprising was Mr. Marconi that by 1897 he had set up a commercial broadcasting company.


Radio waves Radio From its humble beginnings in 1895, radio communication became one of the major developments on the 20th century. However, radio waves allow us to do more than just listen to Bon Jovi or Beethoven. Radio astronomy has allowed us to look at objects in space, which are “hot” enough to emit visible light. Also, air travel would be far less safe without radio waves, as RADAR would not exist. Crystal radio sets.

Galena Crystal

One of the oldest uses of the natural mineral galena was as kohl, a black powder the ancient Egyptians applied around the eyes to reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies (which were a potential source of disease). Galena is the primary ore of lead, which in modern times is mainly used in making lead-acid batteries. However, significant amounts are also used to make lead sheets and shot (once used for shotgun shells, among other things). Galena is also mined for its silver content and serves as a semiconductor with a small bandgap of about 0.4 eV–used in early wireless communication systems. More specifically, it was used as the crystal in “crystal” radio sets as a point-contact diode to detect radio signals. The galena crystal was used with a safety pin or similar sharp wire (known as a “cat’s whisker”). Making such wireless sets was a popular hobby in the US, Britain, and other European countries during the 1930s through 1950s. (In modern wireless communication systems, galena detectors have been replaced by more reliable semiconductor devices, though silicon point-contact microwave detectors still exist in the market.)

Since crystal sets have no batteries and no primary power supply, they rely entirely on the electrical energy developed between the aerial and earth connections. The crystal set had to be carefully tuned to the station by making adjustments to a tuning coil and condenser (with the added complication of using the so-called “cat’s whisker” as the detector). The cat’s whisker detector rested on a piece of galena (crystal) and converted the radio waves received from the station into an audio wave that could be heard through headphones. Needing to be very finely adjusted to obtain the loudest and clearest sound, once the “sweet spot” was found it was important not to move it; quite frustrating if someone bumped into the table and dislodged it. To successfully function, a crystal set requires a very tall aerial (antenna); which need be nothing more than a long piece of wire (perhaps 20 to 50 yards of insulated copper wire stretched outside between poles or trees, or even draped around an apartment space. For the aerial to be effective it needs to be balanced with an earth (ground)–a copper rod or pipe about one yard in length set (or staked) into the ground. The top of the pipe is fitted with a hose-clip to which a length of insulated copper wire is attached, which is then fed into the house (along with the aerial wire) to the where the crystal set is to be operated and connected to the set’s termina.

Television Since the first demonstration of a working television set by Scottish inventor John Logie Baird in 1925 (and the beginning of broadcasting by the BBC in 1929) television has helped shape the world we know. Television has arguably become a far more important method of disseminating information than radio or, in certain circumstances, printed matter (though obviously less effective than the Internet).


In addition to being used in microwave ovens, microwaves provide the means for the bulk of long-distance communication. Communication via microwaves can only travel along the “line of sight,” meaning microwaves can only be used for relatively short distances on the earth’s surface due to the earth’s curvature. On the other hand, the main method of satellite communication uses microwaves (including the relay of cell phone signals).


We have all directly experienced infrared radiation whenever we feel warmth from the sun, a radiator, or other similar sources. However, infrared radiation can be put to many other uses including “search and rescue” operations, enabling people trapped in buildings to be “seen’ through the rubble using special imaging equipment. Other uses include medical treatments, beauty treatments, remote controls, touch-sensitive TV and computer screens—among many.


While ultraviolet (UV) radiation can be harmful tolife, it can also be quite useful. We can use UV to sterilise items (such as surgical instruments) and is also used in the production of many modern
electronic components.

Exposure to large doses of X or gamma radiation can cause long-term side-effects—or even kill. Small doses, however, can be beneficial, as in the case of radiotherapy for treating cancer. The X-ray band of the light spectrum is used to take pictures of bones (as well as welds in metal to ensure the integrity of joints), while the gamma region of light is commonly used for sterilising medical equipment.


While we normally only think about reflection in terms of shiny surfaces, in actuality, if no reflection were occurring we would not be able to see a given object. We refer to reflection from a non-uniform or rough surface as “diffuse” reflection. This merely means that the reflected light is being scattered in all directions by the imperfections of the surface. Reflection from a uniform or shiny surface we refer to as “regular reflection.”


Let us consider for a moment light passing through a transparent object. When light passes from one medium to another, its speed and wavelength change. Interestingly, the frequency remains constant. If light strikes a boundary straight on, then no direction change is observed. However, if light strikes a boundary at any other angle then we see a direction change. A good example of this is the way a pencil appears to bend when put into a glass of water. 

When the “incident ray” strikes the block (A) it bends towards the “normal” (the normal being an imaginary line drawn at right angles to the surface being struck). When the ray leaves the block (B), the ray bends away from the normal, resulting in the ray now parallel to the original ray.


The “refractive index” of a material is an inherent physical property of that material which tells us how the direction of light will change as the ray of light crosses the air/material boundary. The refractive index is expressed thus: Consider what happens when the refracted angle is 90° or more. In this case, the ray does not leave the block. This is called total “internal reflection.” The “incident angle” at which the refracted angle is 90° is called the “critical angle.” The critical angle is found in the equation 

In terms of physics, these principles can be applied in how the human eye “sees.”


Consider the circumstances of a stone striking the surface of a pond. On striking the surface the stone imparts some of its kinetic energy (the energy of movement) to the surface of the water. This energy dissipates in the familiar form of waves disturbing the water.

Amplitude is the distance from the centre line of a wave to the top of a crest or bottom of a trough. Amplitude is a measure of the energy of a wave: the greater the amplitude the greater the energy (units: meters). Wavelength is the distance for the wave to repeat itself between two crests or two troughs (units: meters).

Frequency is the number of times a wave repeats itself in one second (units: Hertz; cycles: per second).

Speed is the distance covered by the wave per second (units: metres per second [m/s]). The relationship between wavelength, speed, and frequency is demonstrated by the following formula: SPEED = FREQUENCY (υ) x WAVE LENGTH(λ).


The following common household items could be affecting your brain and your body: radio, T.V., microwave oven, electric lighting, electric kettle, and telephone. Every living creature relies on a wireless telecommunication system to repair, organize, and renew their body cells and tissues. An electromagnetic field located nearby can affect this system. If the system is disturbed by outside influences (or goes wrong) the creatures can become ill or even die. Plants, which do not have brains, depend on a similar mechanism: chemically-based cell–to–cell communication. External electromagnetic waves can cause disease in the body–but can also cure it. It was once thought that influenza was transmitted through the air. However, in their book Space Travelers, The Bringers of Life, Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramashinghe explain the reality that influenza spreads much faster by person-to-person transmission or by the wind, suggesting that the influenza virus falls onto a cluster of people from outer space. However, they are wrong to ignore the possibility that influenza (or even the common cold) is transmitted by the brains of affected people.

In 1948 a new strain of influenza was reported in Sardinia in shepherds living alone for a long period of time in open country, far from any inhabited centre. This outbreak occurred contemporaneously with the appearance of influenza in other near-by inhabited centers. This indicates that influenza can be contracted without any contact with other human beings. In 1918 Alaska had a population of only 45,000. That year a lethal epidemic of influenza occurred in that region. Travel from the coast to the interior was impossible because of snow and ice. It would appear that wind, animals or birds spread the virus, or that it came from space. (There is also the possibility that it was spread electromagnetically.) 

There was another such outbreak of influenza which started at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, in the US, in September of 1918. In those days, travel from Massachusetts (Fort Devens) to Bombay in two days was impossible—where it then appeared. (In fact, no fast-flying birds or winds could travel such a distance that quickly.) Also, the incubation period for influenza is three days. Viral infection from outer space cannot be ruled out, nor can the fact that influenza could be radiating out from specific Earth epicentres. But telepathic communication could create this influence:.


“I was just thinking about you when the phone rang, and it was you,” is a typical example of telepathy. The receiver of this information would have to have had a mental picture of the telephone and translate this into an electromagnetic waveform. 

There is a possibility that a “radio” transmission is involved. Father of cymatics Hans Jenny has demonstrated the concept that a three-dimensional form can be translated into a specific complex waveform. (Perhaps telepathic energies could account for poltergeist phenomena or the role of the spiritualist or so-called “sensitive.”) In any organic or inorganic form atoms are constantly jiggling. Bernard Kajinski, an early pioneer in telepathy, noted the transference of bodily symptoms from a daughter to a mother when the daughter was undergoing abdominal surgery 14,000 miles away. Spontaneous telepathy occurs most often between members of a family, people in love, and childhood friends. The power of prayer can also have beneficial effects on distant recipients. People in love gaze into each other’s eyes. Given that they eye is directly connected to the brain, surely this is the most direct way of communicating cerebral waveforms. Russian researcher Troskin demonstrated that the number of a patient’s white blood cells can be altered by auto-suggestion.

The side-effects of high-tension electrical cables/lines (which emanate electromagnetic fields) on humans and other animals has now been recognized. Modern electrical appliances have created a sea of electromagnetic traffic around our heads–never before experienced. Sooner or later this will start to disrupt the work of delicate biological systems. In 1954 Sam Yannon started running a T.V. programme. In 1961 he complained to doctors that his sight and hearing were deteriorating and he believed that radio waves were responsible. He died in 1974 at age 62 (twenty years after the start of his electromagnetic irradiation) weighing just 70 pounds, having suffered cataracts of the eyes, loss of balance, and premature senility (remembering no family of friends). The symptoms were identical to those found in many patients exposed to long-term microwave doses. Microwave cookers are also a potential danger due to leaks.) 

Dr. Jean Munro believes that many allergies are caused by electromagnetic pollution; that they are “electronic diseases.” Electromagnetic waves are all around us, affecting everything. If you have a cordless phone, you will know that it will pick up the clock as the thermostat of your refrigerator as it comes into action, or when you switch a light on. Electromagnetic waves are all around us, affecting everything.

We are dealing with sub-cellular components; with hydrogen bonds within DNA macromolecules; with the electronic transmission of information; with wave mechanics; and with the origins and properties of light and other electrostatic energies. Physiologists Francis Crick and James Watson (assisted by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins) effectively pieced together the double helix structure of DNA in the early Nineteen-fifties. Ultraviolet radiation cannot penetrate glass; nor can it cannot penetrate the human cornea. However, it may be able to penetrate infant corneal tissue. Our corneas prevent the entry of UV (ultraviolet) light, which might otherwise damage our sight. However, in that ultraviolet light can penetrate plastic and in the early days of cataract operations some people had their corneas replaced with plastic corneas, there are documented cases of people being able to perceive ultraviolet radiation because of this.

In his book How to Read the Aura, W. E. Butler describes the aura as follows: “The aura is usually seen as a luminous atmosphere around all living things, including what is used to be the custom to regard as inanimate matter [sic].”


This method of photography was developed by Russian electronics engineer and inventor Semyon Kirlian, after Kirlian was asked to collect an instrument for repair from a research institute and chanced to see a demonstration of a high-frequency instrument for electrotherapy (similar machines had been designed by Nikola Tesla the previous century). Kirlian witnessed as a small flash of light jumped between the electrodes and a patient’s skin. Kirlian eventually developed and patented his invention, which was a high-frequency spark generator, oscillating between 75,000 and 200,000 electrical oscillations per second. The high frequency field generated caused the object to radiate some sort of bio-luminescence onto the emulsion of photographic paper. (Note: A “Telsa” is a modern unit of magnetic field strength used even today.

In the late 1700’s, Goeth recorded seeing flashes of light emitted from poppy flowers at sunset. Those minute quantities of light are produced from living organisms formed the basis of a hypothesis first put forward by George Lakhovsky in 1924. Lakhovsky’s system was summed up as “every living being emits radiation.” Kirlian images can identify cancer tumours–even before X-rays can. Researchers Dumitrescu, Golovanov, and Celan obtained the first images of malignant tumours found using electron graphic techniques in 1975. 

Majajakrom found similar palmar discharges in 1976 as did Shapiro in 1977. (The “bright” corona discharge relating to a malignant tumour condition is well documented by other researchers.) Kirlian photographs identify a chaotic effusion of uncontrolled energy at the tumour source. The cell’s radio tuner has gone out of tune. Cells seem to be given normalizing energy by the consumption of fresh fruit. Will-power is also an explanation in terms of this proposed radio network. The brain has the power to override the wayward signals and normality is re-established. 

Dr. Carl and Stephanie Simonton help cancer patients use visualization to combat their condition.) A high-voltage corona discharge caused by pulsed high-frequency waves resulted in the Kirlian “effect.” These waves must not be confused with simple high-frequency waves. This can be explained in terms of ordinary physics. Electrons are emitted from the body of an organism through the action of high-frequency fields and this energy is dissipated in the photographic emulsion in the same manner as light. Dependent on the strength of the emitted electrons, an image is formed in the emulsion.

Dumitrescu not only found an increase in light emission from neoplastic (cancerous) zones with tumours showing as the brightest area of the image, but also in the case of leukaemia, the whole body surface appeared intensely illuminated. A discontinuity of the luminous contour of the body and the presence of the contour proper were also evident. Dumitrescu, in his study of rats artificially inoculated with malignant ascites, his electron graphic images showed the appearance in tumour tissue of a bright zone, appearing on the eighth day of the study. 

By altering the angles of distances between their atomic structures, magnetic fields can probably modify RNA and DNA. Magnetic fields modify the wave function of electrons in macromolecules and produce greater paramagnetic susceptibility, which leads to a slowing of reaction speed and the rate at which RNA and DNA are synthesized. The replication of DNA molecules can be disturbed by the action of magnetic fields. Magnetic forces acting on membranes can affect the vital communications functions of cell membranes, and tumour cells show only weak inter-cellular cohesion. 

As is now known sunbathing can result in skin cancers. One hypothesis explains the reason why radiation can not only damage cellular structures, but cause the reversion of malignant cells to normal cells. In 1962, D. Kim S. Yang of the Department of Physics, Ohio State University, recorded that researcher Darfman was able to show that DNA has high magnetic anisotropy, which means that DNA is very sensitive to magnetic fields. 

Similarly, in Biological Effects of Magnetic Fields, edited by Madeleine Barnothy in 1964, it was suggested that magnetic fields act to alter genetic codes by “interfering with proton spin and modifying wave functions.” Researcher Balitsky was able to show a direct correlation between cancerous cells and the waves which emanate from an animal’s brain. 

Another researcher, Riviere, in 1965 applied a magnetic field in conjunction with microwaves at a particular frequency for twenty minutes over a period of one month, using rats. The magnetic fields were 300 to 620 Oe, the wavelengths between 3 and 80 cm. Tumours and their metastases regressed and in some cases were eliminated by radiation at the right frequencies. Kenyon suggests that malignancy may be caused by a disturbance in the self-regulating mechanisms of the body. These mechanisms are most probably of an electromagnetic nature. With cancer, there is a clear connection with the brain. It often strikes within two years of a mental trauma. There appears to be a fatty coating around some cancerous cells.

Magnetic fields can act therapeutically by facilitating the communication between aberrant cells and adjacent normal cells, which can bring about a return to normality. Other experiments show that DNA molecules align themselves perpendicularly to magnetic fields; that pregnant rats can gain 20% in weight, while chicks have been observed to develop morphological anomalies that can last 30 generations to follow– proof that the genetic code has been altered by magnetic or electromagnetic means. 

In 1746 EdinburgH, Dr. Maimbray put two myrtle shrubs next to an electrical conductor and observed that the shrubs grew three-inch branches and buds at a time when the buds of other myrtles were dormant. 

Jean Antoine Nollet, physics tutor to the Dauphin of France, discovered that plants in metallic pots had an increased rate of transpiration and seeds grown in electrified containers grew more rapidly than those not. In 1783 Abbe Bertholon published the work,“De L’Electricite des Vegetaux,” in which he describes collecting atmospheric electricity with what he called an “electrovegetometer,” which he then passed through plants growing in a field. He suggested that “one day the best fertilizer for plants could come in electrical form.” An explanation of this phenomenon was offered by Dr. W. A. Tiller of Stanford University: “A basic idea in radionics is that each individual organism or material radiates and absorbs energy via a unique wavefield which exhibits certain geometrical frequency and radiation-type characteristics. This is an extended force field that exists around all forms of matter whether animate or inanimate. A useful analogy here is the physical atom that is continually radiating electromagnetic energy in the form of waves because of its oscillating electric development and its thermal vibrations, the more complex the materials, the more complex the wave form.

 The information concerning the glands, body systems, etc. ripples the carrier waves and seems to be associated with a specific phase modulation of the wave for a specific gland. Regions of space associated with a given phase angle of the wave constitute a three-dimensional network of points extending throughout space. To be in resonance with any one of these points is to be in resonance with the particular gland of the entity. The capability of scanning the waveform of the gland exists for the detection of any abnormalities. Likewise, if energy having the normal or healthy waveform of the gland is pumped into any of these specific network pints, the gland will be driven into the normal healthy mode. This produces a tendency for its structure, i.e. healing of the gland occurs. 

Cells born in the presence of this polarizing field tend to grow in a healthier configuration, which weakens the original field of the abnormal or diseased structure and strengthens the field of the normal or healthy structure.” It is essential in all healing to normalize the brain so that its signal gives the proper instructions to the particular cells which are not doing their jobs sufficiently. In AIDS, for example, it is the T4 “helper cells,” which are part of the army of fighters programmed to destroy enemy viruses and other foreign invaders–which are not doing their jobs. Unless we can re-program these T4 cells the patient will be increasingly prone to opportunistic diseases. Under this hypothesis, AIDS is a cerebroviral cellular dysfunction; it kills by destroying the brain itself. Even supposing they could, they would not be able to reproduce the individual signal necessary to bring the T4 helper cells back to normal since each patient is different. The only solution is to send an artificial signal to the patient’s body, which mimics its unique healthy brain signal, or to send a signal–which would target and cancel the incorrect message put there by the retrovirus. (The retrovirus itself cannot broadcast. It is made of RNA not DNA and does not have the capacity to transceive. 

Even DNA cannot broadcast all the signals it would like to; it lacks the codon [genetic code] called Uracil.) The brain can redirect the cells of a wart to normalize–thus the virus is evicted or destroyed. How does the brain do it? First it must discover the viral wavelength and broadcast a resonant waveform to cancel it out; a difficult calculation for the brain to make. Warts can persist–then suddenly disappear. Many other viruses also have a crystal-like array similar to the wart virus: for example, the adenovirus (which gives us a sore throat). Could it be possible that a sore throat could be cured by broadcasting its normalizing frequency?


Beta Rhythms (13Hz–30Hz) Beta rhythms are the normal waking rhythms of the brain, associated with active thinking or active attention, focusing on the outside world or solving conscious problems. Strength of signal is increased by anxiety and reduced by muscular activity. Betas may be useful for cases of senility and may also be of benefit for the student studying hard for exams (especially when used in conjunction with alphas). 

Alpha Rhythms (7Hz–13Hz) Alpha waves cycle at only seven to thirteen cycles per second. Alpha rhythms are slow brain waves, which increase in intensity and frequency of occurrence during the practice of meditation–but are not commonly found during sleep. (Note: Meditation is not a substitute for sleep.) They are present when people feel relaxed but alert. Mental disciplines and meditation practices produce changes in the electrical activity of the brain. Stress affects the mind, body, and spirit of an individual. Life is full of occasions when meditative states can be beneficial to prevent or alleviate stress, nervous tension, pain, insomnia, migraine, high blood pressure, shock, panic attacks, and hyperactivity. Alpha rhythms provide these meditative states for the brain. (Interestingly, cats purr at Alpha wave lengths.) 

Theta Rhythms (4Hz–7Hz) Theta rhythms appear during dreaming or half-waking as hypnagogic states with dream-like imagery. Theta waves appear as consciousness slips towards drowsiness, and can be associated with access to unconscious material, creative inspiration, and deep meditation. They are often accompanied by other frequencies in the alpha and beta band ranges. 

Delta Rhythms (0.5Hz–4Hz) Delta rhythms are associated with deep sleep, and may also be related to higher levels of consciousness. Deltas (and thetas) can be used to induce deeper relaxation (especially in cases of insomnia) where alphas have been unsuccessful. (Information taken from Maxwell Cades’s book, Awakened Mind.)


A Some 5000 years ago, ancients from the East spoke of a universal energy called prana, which they deemed the source of all life. This energy moves through all lifeforms and yogis use various breathing techniques, meditation, and physical exercise to produce altered states of consciousness and longevity. Modern science tells us that the human organism (like everything else in nature) is composed of energy fields–and is not just a physical structure made of molecules. We constantly change, ebb, and flow (just like the sea), and scientists are learning to measure these subtle changes. 

The human energy field is the frontier for the development of new diagnostic and treatment systems. We constantly swim in a sea of life-energy fields; thought fields and bioplasmic forms, moving about and streaming off our bodies. (We are vibrating, radiating plasma itself.) Not a new phenomenon (but rather a new observation and growing awareness), it was recognised many centuries ago and is now part of the renewed interest in the unknown. Practitioners today use mind control not only to improve health and longevity, but to enhance awareness, psychic power, and spiritual development. 

Many ancient Chinese masters practised Qi Gong, Tai Chi, Kung Fu (and other martial disciplines) and also designed the first model for acupuncture (which uses the body’s own energy field), whereby needles are inserted at specific points of the body to balance the yin and yang of the human (and other animals) energy field.


The human eye is a beautiful and complex product of millions of years of evolution. It allows us to view the outside world; gives us distance and perspective. Forming and Focusing an Image How does the eye form an image? The front of the eye (or cornea) is transparent. It allows light to enter the eye. The light entering the eye is focused onto the retina. The retina consists of about 100 million nerve endings called “rods and cones.” The rods are sensitive to very small amounts of light, whereas the cones are responsible for colour vision and sharp images. The lens then refracts the incoming light so that it strikes the retina. 

The eye can adjust the lens in our eyes to suit the object we are trying to see by pulling or loosening the muscle around it. This results is the lens getting thinner or thicker (as needed). This ability to change the focal length of the lens and thus keep the image trained on the retina is called “accommodation.” When focusing on a far object, the lens is pulled tight; on a near object the lens bulges. The distance from your eye to the closest point on which you can focus is called the “near point.”


The iris is an adjustable ring with a central hole (the pupil), through which light enters the eye. The size of this hole and the sensitivity of the retina change automatically with the amount of light entering the eye–adjusting almost instantaneously. (The changes that occur in the retina take some minutes. If, for example, you come into a darkened room after after being in the sunlight, it can take several seconds [even a minute] for your eyes to adjust completely.)


The images we see are formed on the retina, which then transmits this information to the brain through the optic nerve. We continue to “see” any image from the retina for at least a twentieth of a second, which is why movies and television pictures produce what appear like moving pictures from a series of still images. This process is called “persistence of vision.


People with “normal” sight can see an object clearly when the light reflected from it is focused sharply on the retina of each eye. Someone with normal vision can focus sharply on nearby as well as distant objects.


(Long Sightedness) Long sight is caused by the muscles of the eye stretching the lens of our eyes too thinly, or by the eye itself being too short. This results in the image falling behind the retina so what the eye sees is blurred.


There is an area known as the “yellow spot” situated on the retina, which measures about 1mm in diameter, and has a small depression (fovea) located at the centre. When light is focused on this spot a very clear image is formed. However, when a child develops the condition known as “lazy eye” he/she has not learned to rotate the eyeball so that the image falls squarely on the yellow spot. With the brain receiving a blurred image from one eye, it finds it easier to form an image from the other eye, causing the deficient eye to become “lazy.” For the brain to be able to produce clear images, this condition must be detected very early (well before the child begins to read), with muscular training initiated, often involving placing a patch over the good eye to correct the mechanical functioning of the lazier of the two.


Most people are able to distinguish colours, and very few people are completely “blind” to color It is estimated, however, that 1-in-10 men have trouble distinguishing certain colours (particularly red and green). Very few women are colour-blind, but men usually inherit it from their mothers if their mother’s father was colour-blind.